United States Of America
United States of America is second largest country of North American Continent and third largest country of the world. It has a total land area of 9,158,022 square kilometers and it has an estimated population of 322,369,319. A federal constitutional formed country which consists of 50 states. United States of America has presidential system in the country, Washington D.C is the capital the of U.S.A. In 28 states English language is mostly spoken or used, though English is not its official language at federal level.
USA currency is Dollar. Pakistan is 11 hours ahead of the USA. It is a Christian country, where Jews are the largest ethnic minority. Almost 3 to 5 percent of the population is Muslims. “In God We Trust” is the official motto of America. “The Star Spangled Banner” is the national Anthem of the United States of America, lyrics by Francis Scott Key and music composed by John Stafford Smith. In the 19th and 20th century USA empowered it’s political, military and economic growth. With the end of cold war America emerged as an unchallenged super power of the world.
The United States of America is usually known as United States, U.S., U.S.A., The U.S.A., and The U.S. Of A., the States and America. The name America was used first time in year 1507, when a German cartographer chose and named South and North America continents on the globe.
The America was also known as Colombia, named after Christopher Columbus and it was till the end of 19th century Colombia was known as the capital of The USA, which later was changed but politically Colombia’s name is still used. Columbus Day is celebrated with a national holiday to commemorate the day when Columbus discovered land of America. It was on the 4th of July 1776 when The United States Of America was officially declared as an independent State. On 15th November 1777 in the second Continental Conference the confederation article was accepted in which it was stated. The Stile of this Confederacy shall be “The United States Of America”, this name was actually suggested by Thomson Paine. Whether it is North America or South America people of this continent eventually are called Americans.
The Geography of America
Toward the east common trees and grassy fields can be found which gradually turn into prairies. Coniferous forests and mountains are to the west and in the south west are deserts. Most of the country’s population lives in the North East, by the coast of the Great Lake and the Atlantic Seaboard.
According to its contiguous area, America is considered the third largest country of the world. Individually as well, it is considered the third largest country after Russia and Canada. Most of its combined area is present in the east. Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico are in the south, while in the north is Canada. The boundaries of Alaska also meet Canada. Pacific Ocean is in the south and to its north is the North Sea. To the west of Alaska is a strait named Bering Strait, which is a narrow path of the sea, across which is Russia. The state of Hawaii exists in the form of a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean.
The Land of America
The land of America is especially very different in the west. On the northern coast are coastal planes, which are vast in the south and become narrow in the north. The coastline ends in the north of New Jersey. In the extreme southeastern region is Florida, which is a land of sedimentary soil. Apart from the coastal areas, begins the plateau region of Piedmont. It ends at the system of Appalachian Mountains which are up to 6000 ft high in North Carolina, Tennessee and New Hampshire. On the western ramps of the Appalachians are plains that are relatively smooth. The Great Lake and the Mississippi river, which is the fourth longest river in the world, are also present. To the west of the Mississippi River are barren mountains.
From the western edge of the Great Plains a range of Rocky Mountains suddenly arises and spreads across the entire USA, from north to the south. It’s height in Colorado is 14000 ft, that is equal to 4270 meters. In the past, these Rocky Mountains were famous because of their volcanic activities, but today only one of these regions is volcanic ally active. This region is located at Yellowstone Park, in Wyoming, and is known as Super Volcano. Many mountain ranges are found in Alaska as well, where Mt. McKinley is the highest mountain in North America. Volcanic mountains are found throughout the whole territory of Alaska. The Hawaiian Islands are volcanic islands of tropical nature which are spread over an area of more than 1500 miles that is 2400 kilometers. These consist of six large and a dozen small islands.
The Climate of America
Due to its far and wide area, the United States of America has varied weather conditions of every region of the world. Most of the regions are moderate. In the states of Hawaii and south Florida, the weather is likely tropical. In Alaska it is polar, whereas in the Great Plains it is freezing.
On the coast of California the climate is like the Mediterranean countries, while on the Great Basin it is dry. This country’s relatively generous climate has played a vital role in its becoming a world power because droughts rarely occur in most of its agricultural sectors. Floods remain restricted to limited areas and the weather is mostly moderate with an appropriate amount of rainfall.
The History of America
Until five centuries ago, the entire Eastern world (consisting of Europe, Africa, Asia and countries of the western hemisphere) was totally unaware of the existence of America, Canada and other western countries. By the end of the fifteenth century, the era of the European expeditions began and one after the other different countries, and regions, got discovered.
On the 12th of October Columbus reached near the eastern coast of the Bahamas, which is located at the south eastern coast of America, near Florida. This was the first step ever of a European on the land of USA. Then began the series of endless discoveries of one country after the other. In the year 1524, a French campaigner Giovanni Vera Zona started a campaign and moved from Carolina towards the north and entered New York. In 1579, Francis Drake entered the Gulf of San Fransisco on the western coast and established a newly founded British colony. In 1607, Captain John Smith landed on the coast of Virginia along with 105 soldiers in three airplanes and founded the first British colony named “James Town”. In 1624, in the areas of Albania and New York, Dutch colonies named as “New Netherlands” were founded. That’s how colonies of different European countries started forming. These colonies had conflicts and clashes and sometimes ended up having wars against each other. On the other hand, the British government started treating their colonies as proper ones. For their exploitation the government started applied taxes every now and then, resulting in frustration and rebellion among the citizens which later took the shape of a Freedom Movement. After struggling for the freedom for years, on the 5th of September 1774, the first continental conference was held in Philadelphia in which Civil disobedience resolution was passed against the British government. Later on the 23rd of March 1775, Patrick Henry delivered a speech in Virginia convention and said these historic words :
Give Me Liberty Or Give Me Death
On the 7th of June 1766, Richard Henry Lee presented a resolution at the Continental conference which stated that, “These united colonies have the right to live freely and independently”. This resolution was accepted on the 2nd of July and on the 4th of July the “Declaration of Independence” was signed. In March 1782, the British cabinet recognized the independence of America. In 1789, George Washington was elected the first president, who retired from this designation in the year 1796. George Washington was America’s greatest leader. His quote, First in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen, is very famous.
America’s Political System
The constitution of the United States of America is the most ancient and entirely written constitution. Its government depends on the congress system under representative democracy, which is empowered under the constitution. The government consists of three levels; federal, state and local. The members of these three levels are chosen either through the voters’ secret ballot or nominated by other elected members. The decision of the executive and legislative offices is made by the citizens input in their respective stakeholders through their collective votes. The judiciary and cabinet level offices are nominated by the executive branch and the legislature accepts it. In some of the states, the judicial seats are elected through common elections. The federal government consists of three branches, which are formed for the sake of check and balance of the other branches.
Legislature : Congress, which is composed of the senate and the House of Representatives and constitutes the federal laws, announces wars. It also has the rights of impeachment and the approval of contracts.
Executive : The president, who along with the consent of the senate nominates the cabinet and other officers, looks after and upholds the federal laws, rejects the bills and is also the commander in chief of the army.
Judiciary : The president determines the judges of the Supreme Court and lower federal courts with the senate’s approval, who interpret the laws and validate their period according to the constitution. They may also terminate any laws which have become unconstitutional.
American Congress is composed of two legislature houses. The number of members of the House of Representatives is 435. Every member represents his district for two years. Every state learns about the population rate through their number of seats, and every ten years the population is determined again. Every state is allowed to have at least one representative. The seven states have one representative each. California has the most number of representatives, which is 53. Every state has two senators, who are elected on the state level for a period of six years. The elections of one-third of the senators are held every other year. The Republican and the Democratic Party has a great influence in America and these parties rule there too. A majority of these party members is present in the federal, state and lower government. Independent candidates can work better on the lower level, although some of them are present in the senate and House of Representatives. According to the USA political culture, the Republican party is considered the right arm and is defined by conservatism, whereas the Democratic party is considered the left arm and is thought to be liberal. The country’s current president, Barack Obama, is a part of the Democratic party.
America’s Military and Foreign Relations
America has a great economic, political and military influence all over the world, which is why its foreign policy is a favorite subject of discussions across the world. Embassies of almost all the countries in the world are located in Washington D.C. However, Cuba, Iran, North Korea and Sudan do not have diplomatic relations with America. USA has a long tradition of civilian control in military matters. The Department of Defense is responsible for handling the USA armed forces, which is composed of the Army, Navy and Air Force.
There are about Fourteen hundred thousand people serving in the USA Army and another few hundred thousand serving in the form of reserve and national guards. In America, serving in the military is considered a public service. There are over 700 organizations working under the administration of the American army. It has military bases in every continent, except Antarctica.
Administrative Divisions of America
48 of the states, except Alaska and Hawaii, which are contiguous to one another form the Continental United States. Some sources count Alaska as a part of this too, because it is distinct from the rest of the states of USA, but North America is actually a part of America. The District of Columbia is also considered a part of it. Hawaii, which is considered the 50th state, exists in the form of a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean.
The United States of America owns many other regions, and the District of Columbia is one of them. It is where the country’s capital Washington D.C. is located. Many regions are a part of USA and many other states have accession to it even after being across the ocean.
The Environment of America
Over 17 thousand types of plants and trees are found in USA, out of which 5 thousand are only found in California. Among these are the world’s tallest, heaviest and the most ancient trees. America’s environment ranges from tropical to tundra nature and the types of vegetation found here are more than any other countries of the world. However, due to thousands of foreign vegetation, the country’s national vegetation and humans are getting affected negatively.
More than 400 species of mammals, more than 700 species of birds, 500 species of reptiles and more than 90 thousand species of insects have been noted. USA Fisheries and Wildlife departments have safely transferred the endangered and nearly extinct species. On the other hand, the USA government is controlling an area of about 10, 20,775 square miles, which is 28% of the total area. This area is reserved for parks and forests, but some part of this area is used for the exploration of oil and gas, mining and animal farms as well.
America’s economic system is based upon mixed entrepreneurship, where corporations, private firms and individuals make micro-economic decisions together. The government doesn’t interfere above this level. But on the whole, the government’s interference is much more on all levels. Most of the trade and business is run by corporations, which are private properties.
USA annual average income per house is $ 46,326; while a 25 to 64 year old’s average annual individual income is $ 32,611.
Economic activities are different in various regions of the country. New York City has the status of the country’s printing, dissemination and advertising center, while Los Angeles is famous for Film and Television. San Fransisco is significant for its technology. Central western region is famous for its heavy industries. Detroit has historical importance for American motor vehicle Industry and Chicago is significant in Trade and economy. South East is famous for tourism and agriculture, and Wood Industry, as profit over here is relatively lower than the rest of the states. A bigger share of America’s economy is collected from services, where one-fourth of the total population works. It is abundant in natural resources like coal, oil and precious metals. However, this country is still dependent on other countries for energy resources. In agriculture, America is the world’s top producer of maize, Sunflower, rice and wheat. There is also an extended industry of tourism in America, which stands in the third place in the world. Besides that, the exportation of aircraft, steel, weapons and Electronic products is a big part of the USA industries. In foreign trade, with a percentage of 19%, North USA country, Canada, is on top of the list, while China, Mexico and Japan follow it.
In American community, the difference of classes is lower than in Europe and Scandinavian countries. According to some experts, the reason behind it is the education system. In USA education system, most of the education expenses are paid through taxes and the treasury. That’s why the distribution creates a considerable difference between the posh and poor regions. According to a former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board of the United States, Alan Greenspan, this difference between the incomes and the rate of the downfall of the economic success will eventually result in a collapse of the entire system.
The Greatest Invention
America is very famous because of inventions in Science and Technology. For research and development 69% of the fund is given by private sector. In the Second World War America played a major role in making of Atom bomb and starting Atomic age. In the beginning of cold war America achieved many successes in space science and technology and also started space age. The height of success was witnessed only when Neil Armstrong for the first time through Apollo 11 stepped on the Moon in July 1969, likewise USA invented Internet and before that also invented ARPANET. Most of its infrastructure is controlled by USA itself.
Scientific especially in Physiology and Medicine America has won so many Nobel prizes. U.S. Department of National Health for Bio Medicine has a center; Celera Genomics is a private corporation which played a key role in sequencing the Human Genome project. NASA has a significant importance in Aeronautics and Space.
The Web of Transport
In U.S. the automobile industry started well before many other countries. The high ways are the backbone of the country’s means of transport, on which a large number of passenger and loading vehicles travel every day. In USA 39,82,521 miles (64,07,637 km) long road network exists which is largest in the world.
Public transport systems are available in big cities like New York subway is the busiest subway system in the world. Apart from few American cities many are mostly well populated and because of this, most of the families have their own house and cars and it is essential. USA private passenger railway lines system is significant. During 1979 government intervened and regularized all passenger services under a government funded AMTRAK Corporation. American railway system is the largest in the world.
For longer journeys people prefer traveling by air. The most 30 busiest airports in the world, based on number of passengers in which 17 airports are in America. The Harts field-Jackson Atlanta is the busiest airport of the world, based on traveling passengers to and from other airports which is in the United States. Luggage transfer and handing of 30 (thirty) busiest airports of the world from which 12 are in America. Memphis International Airport is world’s busiest airport for luggage transferring. Worlds many biggest seaports are in the United States of America, in which Los Angeles port, Long Beach port and New York and New Jersey port are the busiest. Within United States both Saint Lawrence Seaway and Mississippi river are famous waterways for traveling. The Erie Canal between Atlantic Ocean and Great Lake has become important part not only in agriculture but it helped lot to develop industries of the central west America and made New York City a financial hub.
The culture of United States of America is influenced by early English settler. This culture covered evolutionary process so fast and apart from its liberal identity local, Spanish, Mexican Cowboys culture and later influenced by European, African and early Asian settlers.
All together in Europe German, British and Irish culture have shown impact and further Italians, Greek and Ashkenazi (Jews those were from Germany and Eastern Europe) also made some impact. Children of African slaves to have some share in early USA culture.